Microwave Transmission Networks, Second Edition

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Metals in the area, precipitation, fog, rainfall, and a number of other factors can cause reflections and therefore degradations and echoes. The higher in elevation we move away from land-based systems, the better the performance because there is less intrusion from other land-based systems, such as television, radio, and police and military systems. Repeater spacing with microwave varies depending on the frequency of transmission. Remember from Chapter 1 that lower frequencies can travel farther than higher frequencies before they attenuate. Higher frequencies lose power more rapidly.

In the higher-frequency allocations, such as 18GHz, 23GHz, and 45GHz, the spacing needs to be much shorter, in the range of 1 to 5 miles 1. This is an important issue in network design and, depending on the scope over which you want to deploy these facilities, it can have a significant impact on the investment required.

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Another important design criterion is that microwave requires line of sight and is a highly directional beam. Microwave requires a clear, unobstructed view, and it can't move through any obstacles, even things you wouldn't think would be obstacles, such as leaves on a tree. Technologies that depend on line of sight may work brilliantly in areas that have the appropriate terrain and climate, and they may not perform very well where there are many obstacles or where there is a lot of precipitation.

Furthermore, line of sight is restricted by the curvature of the earth, which interrupts the line of sight at about 90 miles km. However, new spectrum utilization techniques such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDM permit non-line-of-sight operation, greatly expanding the use of microwave. Chapter 15 discusses OFDM in detail.

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The impact of precipitation on microwave can be great. Microwave beams are small, and as you go up into the higher bands, the waveforms get smaller and smaller.

Pretty soon, they're smaller than a raindrop, and they can be absorbed by a raindrop and then scattered in a million directions. Therefore, in wet atmospheric conditions, there is a great potential for problems with microwave. As a result, practicing network diversity—using both terrestrial and nonterrestrial alternatives—is critical.

One application associated with microwave is to replace the use of leased lines in a private network.

Microwave Transmission Networks, Second Edition by Harvey Lehpamer

Figure 2. Because these tie trunks were billed on a monthly basis and were mileage sensitive, they were going to be a cost factor forever. Therefore, a digital microwave system was purchased to replace the tie trunks. This system provides capacity between the buildings and does away with the monthly cost of the leased lines.

This setup is commonly used by multinode or multilocation customers e.

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Another key application of microwave is bypassing , which can be interpreted in multiple ways. Initially, this technique was used to bypass the local telecommunications company. With the introduction of competition in the long-distance marketplace, end users in the United States initially had choices about who would be their primary long-distance carrier i.

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But to get to that carrier to transport the long-distance portion of the call, we still needed to get special local access trunks that led through the local operator to the competing interexchange provider. That meant paying an additional monthly fee for these local access trunks. In an attempt to avoid those additional costs, businesses began to bypass the local telephone company by simply putting up a digital microwave system—a microwave tower with a shot directly to the interexchange carrier's point of presence.

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Bypassing can also be used to circumvent construction. Say that a pharmaceutical company on a large campus has a public thoroughfare, and across the street there's a lovely park where the employees take their lunch and otherwise relax during the day. No one foresaw the fame and fortune the company would achieve with its latest migraine medicine, so it had not planned to build another facility to house the people it now needed to add. Nobody ever provisioned conduit leading to that park across the street. The cost and time to get permission to break ground, lay conduit, pull cable, repave, and relandscape would be cost- and time-prohibitive.

To bypass that entire operation, microwave could be used between the main campus and the remote park see Figure 2. This is essentially the same strategy that wireless local loop is pursuing. Rather than take the time and money to build a wireline facility, you can do it much more rapidly and much more cost-effectively on a wireless basis. Something could always delay the process e. Therefore, these systems are especially popular in parts of the world where there is not already a local loop infrastructure. In addition, there are several unlicensed bands in the microwave spectrum, which means anyone can use them without needing to apply for and receive a license from the spectrum management agency.

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